You would have heard of sandblasting which has been around for many years. An advancement of its technology is dustless or vapour blasting and here is a simple explanation of how it works.
Traditionally, dry sandblasting uses just two elements: abrasive media and compressed air to remove coatings, contaminants, corrosion and residue from hard surfaces. This is effective but environmental restrictions require dry blasting to be performed in a contained area only. The cloud of dust that forms from the media and the coating particles is hazardous to health.
Dustless Blasting introduces an additional element of water to suppress the dust. Water
is mixed with the abrasive media to form a wet slurry. The wet slurry is introduced
into the high pressure air stream from the compressor and blasted onto the substrate to remove the coating/corrosion from the surface.
The mass of the media is greatly increased by soaking in water which gives a lot more energy to the media during blasting. To compare dry blasting with dustless blasting, “It’s like throwing a dry sock and a wet sock, the wet sock with go much further with the same energy applied”